TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
DEAF AND DUMB.
FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1S78.
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
DEAF AND DUMB.
FISCAL TEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1878.
GOTEKNMEKT PRINTING OFFICE.
>20 Devonshire St., Boston.
:CUPIED BV THE
• the Deaf and Dumb.
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB
OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTION.
Patron.—RUTHERFORD B. HATES, President
of the United States.
President. —EDWARD It. GALLAUDET, Pk. D.,
Secretary .— WILLIAM STICKNEY, Ean.
Treasurer. —GEORGE W. RIGGS, Esq.
Directors. —Hon. GEORGE F. EDMUNDS, Rena
tor from Vt.; Hon. HENRY L. DAWES, of
Mass.; Hon. JULIAN HARTRIDGE, M. C.,
fromGa.; Hon. WILLIAM CLAFLIN, M. C.,
frum Mass.; Ho.n. WILLIAM E. NIIiLACK,
of Ind.; Rev. BYRON SUNDERLAND. D.
D. ; .TAMES C. McGUIRE, Esq.; Hon.
HENRY D. COOKE.
President and Professor of Moral and Political Sci¬
ence—EDWARD M. GALLAUDET, Pk. D.,
Professor of Mental Science andEnglish Philology—
SAMUEL POUTER, M. A.
Professor of History and Ancient Languages— ED¬
WARD A. FAY, M. A.
Professor of Modern Languages— . . ■
Professor of Natural Science— Rev. JOHN W.
(.TUCKERING, Jit., M. A.
Professor of Mathematics and Chemistry—7 OSEPH
C. GORDON, M. A.
Assistant Professor of History and English. —J.
BURTON HOTCHKISS, M. A.
Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Latin—
AMOS G. DRAPER, M. A.
Lecturer on Natural History .— Rev. WILLIAM
W. TURNER, Pk. D.
FACULTY OF THE PRIMARY DEPARTMENT.
President.—EDWARD M. GALLAUDET, Ph. D.,
Instructors — TAMES DENISON, M. A., Principal;
MELVILLE BALLARD, M. S.; WILBUR
NORRIS SPARROW, 13. A.
Instructor in Articulation. —MARY T. G. GOR¬
.Supervisor .— JOHN B. WIGHT.
Attending Physician— N. S. LINCOLN, M. D.
Matron —Miss ANNA A. PRATT.
Assistant Matron— Miss MARGARET ALLEN.
Master of Shop— ALMON BRYANT.
*Tke duties of this professorship are for the present discharged by the professor of history and
TWEXTUFIRST .ANNUAL REPORT
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB.
Columbia. Institution- for the Deaf and Dumb,
Kendall G-reen, near Washing-ton, D. C.,
November 1, 1878.
Sir : In compliance with the acts of Congress making provision for
the support of this institution, we have the honor to report its progress
during the year ending June 30, 1878.
NUMBER OF PUPILS.
Tho pupils remaining in tlie institution on the 1st day of July, 1877, numbered... 81
Admitted during the year'. 15
Since admitted. 21
Under instruction since July 1, 1877: males, 103; females, 14. Of
these, G6 have been in tho collegiate department, representing twenty-
five States and tho Federal District, and 51 in the primary department.
A list of tho names of the pupils connected with the institution since
July 1, 1877, will be found appended to this report.
PROMOTION OF OFFICERS.
Mr. John Burton Hotchkiss, a graduate of our college, B. A., 18CD,
M. A., 1874, who has filled a position in our college faculty as tutor in
history and English since 1809, was promoted to an assistant professor¬
ship last October. At the same time the board of directors promoted to
the same rank Mr. Amos G. Draper, also a graduate of our college, B.
A., 1873, M. A., 1870, who has filled a position in our college faculty as
tutor in mathematics and Latin since 1872.
Miss Mary T. G. Gordon, who has been for many years a faithful and
successful teacher in our primary department, has devoted herself dur¬
ing the summer vacation just passed to the study of Bell’s system of
visible speech, under a competent instructor, and is now giving all her
time to the teaching of artieulatiou and lip-reading to pupils in the pri¬
mary department. The results of her efforts in this interesting depart¬
ment of deaf-mute instruction will bo fully stated in our next report.
Mr. Wilbur Norris Sparrow, a graduate of our college in 1877, has
been engaged for one year as an instructor in the primary department,
and has assumed the duties hitherto discharged by Miss Gordon,
No other changes have occurred among our officers during the year,
and all have discharged their several duties in a manner deserving of
HEALTH OF THE INSTITUTION.
We are permitted to record anotlierjyear of exemption from sickness
of any serious nature, witli a single exception.
Death of James M. Cosgrove .—In April last Mr. Cosgrove, of Minne-
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOB THE DEAF AND DUMB.
sota, a member of tbe junior class of our college, was seized with what
at first seemed to be an attack of ordinary neuralgia in the head. His
illness, however, soon took a more serious form, and after only three
days’ duration resulted fatally. So unexpected was the death of the
patient that a post-mortem examination was made, which revealed the
presence of an abscess at the base of the brain.
Death of Julius C. Dargan .—On the 30th of May last, being Decoration
Day, and consequently a holiday, Mr. Dargan, of South Carolina, pur¬
suing a select course of study in the college, made a visit to Mount
Vernon. The day being quite warm, he went a short distance below the
landing and took a bath in the river. He was seen by some fishermen
to go out of the water and then return for another swim. After being
in the water for a few moments this second time, he threw up his arms,
struggled, and sank. When, after some hours, his body was recovered,
his lower limbs were found rigidly drawn up, leaving no doubt as to the
occasion of his sinking.
Both these young gentlemen were held in high esteem by their friends
in the institution, as the following extracts from the records of the col¬
lege faculty will testify:
Whereas, in the providence of Oort, we were called to mourn the death, on the 22d
of April last, of James Martin Cosgrove, a member of the junior class, we desire to do
honor to his memory , and to afford such consolation as we thus may to liis afllictert rel¬
atives, by placing on record an expression of our sense of Iris worth, and of our sorrow
at an event which seemed so untimely to our limited vision.
During the four years that Mr. Cosgrove was under our tuition his conduct and tho
character ho manifested were such as to entitle him to our esteem and to win for him
our affectionate regard. Truthfulness, frankness, generosity, and kindness of heart
were marked traits in his character, while his intellectual ability and bodily vigor,
with his enthusiasm and earnestness in study and in efforts for self-improvement, gave
promise of a life that would he useful to his fellow-men and a comfort and blessing to
his friends, and that would reflect honor upon the college. Wo felt his death as a loss t o
the institution; and to each of us it brought grief as the loss of a friend to whom wo
had a strong personal attachment. The evidence which he gave of a Christian temper
of mind and of Christian concientiousness in his daily conduct leads us to the confident
hope that the event so afflictive to his surviving friends has been to him the gain of
an everlasting life.
Mr. Julius C. Dargan, who lost his life by drowning on tho 30th of May last, hart
been a student in the college for nearly four years; ami, during that time, he hart won
the regard of Ills teachers by the serious, earnest character of his daily walk and
conversation. It is, therefore, their desire and pleasure to put on record this evi¬
dence of their appreciation of his many admirable qualities as a student and as a man.
Mr. Dargan was ever faithful to the duties imposed upon him as a student, and dur¬
ing the first years of his connection with the college he was regarded as a young man
of much promise ; and although the power of his mind were afterward affected un¬
favorably by the bodily sufferings to which he was subjected by diseases which had
fastened upon him, he continued to the last an eager and aspiring student, patient and
painstaking in all his work. To those qualities were added a rigidity of moral prin-
ieple that, being the prompting of a sincere Christian spirit, gave rise to that anxious
solicitude to do his whole duty to God and man which was a marked peculiarity of
his daily life. We cannot hut believe that, with these characteristics, he would have
fitted himself to till a high sphere of honor and usefulness had life and health been
spared him. Still we recognize the infinite wisdom and love of our Heavenly Father
in removing our friend, by a sudden and comparatively painless death, from a life that
to all human foresight had naught but suffering in store for him; and we commend
this thought to his sorrowing friends, and the. lesson of his life to all aspiring young
men, well assured that in them there'is comfort and instruction for all who tread the
t horny ways of this world.
Death of Mrs. Thomas H. Gallaudet .—On the 13th of May, 1877, Mrs.
Thomas II. Gallaudet, the first matron of this institution, (lieu after a
few hours’ illness, at the house of her son, the president of the institu¬
tion. Mrs. Gallaudet was appointed to the office of matron by vote of
the board on the 30th of May, 1857, and assisted her son in the organiza¬
tion of the institution, holding the office of matron for nine years.
Shortly after her resignation of the office of matron, the following
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 7
preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted by the board of
Whereas this board, apprised of the fact of the retirement, as matrou,
from this institution, of Mrs. Thomas II. Gallaudet, and deeming this a
lit occasion for some expression of their sentiments toward this esteemed
and beloved friend, for so many years connected with this institution,
caring for it, indeed, with a mother’s care in the times of its infancy and
comparative helplessness, thus having here accomplished the fullness of
her task in this last important work of her earthly mission, and by
reason of age and infirmity being now constrained to cease from all ac¬
tive participation in the public and philanthropic enterprise to which the
later years of her life have been devoted; and whereas it is eminently
proper that we should put in some permanent form, in testimony of our
promptings, some tribute to a character so pure and a devotion so dis¬
tinguished : Therefore,
Resolved , That we recognize in Mrs. Gallaudet one who was associ¬
ated for many years in the nearest earthly relationship with a noble
Christian benefactor (in our country the pioneer and founder of institu¬
tions for the deaf and dumb), and who. though herself knowing the loss of
speech and hearing, and for years past walking in widowhood, has given
her best energies to the cause of the afflicted, and left not only a bright
record of her manifold personal services, but also a living monument in
her philanthropic and devoted sons.
Resolved , That in her retirement now in the ripeness of her years and
honor, and ceasing, as is most fit, from all those public, active labors
and high responsibilities which she has so long sustained, she will bear
with her, for the remainder of her life, our heartfelt appreciation of her
many virtues and sterling worth, and our earnest prayers that her last days
may be her best days, and that she may find at length in another state
of being the perfect rest and reward which are promised to all the good.
After her retirement from the active service of the institution, Mrs.
Gallaudet maintained, as was natural, a most lively interest in its pros¬
perity, and during her yearly visits to her son she did much to advance
the welfare of the institution, by her intercourse with the officers, pupils,
and students in the capacity of a venerated friend and adviser.
ANNIVERSARY OF THE INCORPORATION OF THE INSTITUTION.
It was on the 10th of February, 1857, that the act of Congress incor¬
porating this institution became a law. On the 10th of February last,
the twenty-first birthday of the institution was celebrated by the formal
opening and occupancy of the college building, an appropriation for the
completion of which was made in March, 1877.
A meeting of the board of directors was called for that day, and all
persons officially connected with the institution were invited to attend
with their families.
Among those present were the President of the United States, who is
ex-officio patron of the institution, with Mrs. Hayes and her cousin, Mrs.
McFarland, of Kentucky; Vice-President Wheeler, who was for two
years a director of the institution, with Mr. Dickinson, his private secre¬
tary, Dr. and Mrs. Woodworth, Mr. and Mrs. Leslie Weed, and Miss
Alice Skinner, of Malone, N. Y., friends of the Vice-President; Mrs.
Speaker Itandall (the Speaker being unavoidably absent), Senators Ed¬
munds and Dawes, and Governor Clutlin, of Massachusetts, congressional
directors of the institution, with their ladies; l!ev. Dr. Sunderland, Hon.
William Stickney, and lion. Henry I). Cooke, corporate directors, with
their families; F. C. Withers, of Vow York, architect of the new build¬
ing, with Mrs. Withers; Senator Windom and ladies; Miss Hams, of
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOB TIIE DEAF AND DUMB.
Virginia, daughter of iron. J. T. Harris, a former director of the institu¬
tion, with Hon. If. M. Knapp, of Illinois; lion. Unfits P. Spalding, ox-
incinber of Congress from Ohio, a former director of the institution, with
Mrs. Spalding; Mr. and Mrs. It. C. Fox, and Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Cutter,
the ladies being daughters of the late lion. Amos Kendall, the founder
and first president of the institution; lion. D. C. Denison, an uncle of
the wife of President Gallandet, with Miss Denison.
After the building had been examined by the visitors they were sum¬
moned to the chapel hall by the college bell, where the meeting of the
board of directors was called to order by the President.
Before tiro formal business of tlie board was entered upon, Mr. S. M.
Freeman, of Ohio, a member of the senior class, expressed the feelings
of the students in the following address, which he delivered orally:
MR. FEEEMAN’S ADDRESS.
Ladies and Gentlemen: The time to which we liavc long looked forward wit-heager
anticipation lias at length arrived. A work, which is hut the auxiliary to a higher
labor, is accomplished, The architect, the mechanic, the laborer, have one by one
withdrawn to other fields of toil, but what a change they havo wrought! Side by side
with tlic old college dormitory, around which cluster so many pleasant reminiscences,
has arisen an edifice whose beauty of form is enhanced by the uses for which it is in¬
tended. Its bright and cosy rooms invite one (o study and retirement; its spacious
halls are suggestive of comfort, and elegance; and the whole seems to offer induce¬
ments to patient and cheerful industry. A long-felt want has been supplied ; and as
we pause to contemplate our surroundings the heart would fain seek to unbosom it¬
self in a Hood of expressions.
Surely this gathering is not intended for a mere interchange of compliments, hut for
heartfelt congratulations. The occasion marks a now era in the history of the college.
To-day the institution celebrates the twenty-first anniversary of its existence. As
we turn back over the records of all those years, what prosperous and healthy growth
do we find on every page! It is a growth fraught with all the evidences of a vigorous
life; and now, as a young man who, standing upon the threshold of manhood, im¬
plores his father's Messing ere ho enters the world’s battle-field, so this young institu¬
tion, about to turn over another leaf, stands prepared to receive the benediction which
you are, ready and willing to bestow.
To you, members of the board of directors, and to tho president of tlie college on
whose fidelity you havo always firmly relied, as well as to the Congress of the United
States, the thanks of the students are mainly due,. We feel that we owe yon a debt
of gratitude we can never repay. Gladly would we declare in words our appreciation
of this added evidence of your kindness, but the scantiness of language is such as to
preclude the possibility of giving full utterance to the feelings of our hearts. Allow
us to hope, however, that the future may not ho, barren of results, hut that duty ever
beckoning to us, may so direct our footsteps that all our actions may reflect honor
upon our alma mater. We assure you that tho elegant and commodious structure into
which we have just removed, and to which wo can point with pride, is to us not only
an expression of generous magnanimity, hut also a symbol of all that is beautiful and
noble in life. Durable, substantial, anil elegant, it is well fitted to serve as a pattern
after which to mold our characters.
A good education is ono of the choicest of earthly blessings. Tho man who has a
clear comprehension of the world’s history; of the unfolding of nature’s laws, and
the various truths of science; who has t he highest and most perfect idea of an infinite
Being, and who strives to living himself into closer relation with that Being, is indeed
a happy man. But were education neglected all tlieso essential attributes of happi¬
ness would be lacking. When we reflect upon all these tilings, it is natural that we
should regard this institution in the, light of an unspeakable blessing. Wherever lie
is, and in whatever circumstances of life he tuny be placed, the educated (leaf-muto
can never, never forget the friends to whom he is indebted for his escape from a
thraldom worse than slavery of tin; body.
Among those who honor us by their attendance to-day there are two whose presence
is especially gratifying and whose interest in such gatherings never seems to diminish.
President and Mrs. Hayes, amid all the vicissitudes of an active life, you have never
ceased to give the doaf-muto now proofs of your benevolent regard.' We greet you
with pleasure, and hope you will share in tho joy of this new possession.
We should fall far short of our duty if, on this occasion of rejoicing, wo should pass
wlthoutnotiee one whoso name is forever linked with this institution. Amos Kendall
deserves the grateful remembrance of all who enter tlieso walls in search of knowl¬
edge; and we are sure that, were lie with us at this moment, his eyes would light up
aud bis countenance beam with pleasure as lie gazed upon this assemblage. But
building ERECTED AXn PRESENTED I'.V HOX. AMOS kexdai.i. to the
Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb.
220 Devonshire St., Boston.
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOE THE DEAF AND DUMB. 9
though lie lie not present in tlie flesh, we cun imagine that, from that high sphere to
which he has hern called, his benign smile is beaming down upon us, ami there, is
still the same, “God bless you” awaiting us.
Twenty-one years have come and gone. They represent but a very small space in
the ocean of time, but for the institution they have been years of fruitful abundance.
And now as we, enter upon our new era of prosperity, allow us once again, gentlemen
of the board of directors, to thank you as the representatives of a great people. Wo
will rest assured that, feeling as you must do the nobility of the service you are ren¬
dering, you find yourselves abundantly repaid for your exertions in our behalf.
lion. William SticUney, secretary of the hoard, then read the follow¬
REFOET OF THE BUILDING COMMITTEE.
The building committee of the board of directors of the Columbia
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb heg leave to present to the hoard the
On the day which marks the completion of twenty-one years since the institution was
incorporated hy Congress, we have the pleasure of informing yon that all the build¬
ings contemplated in plans submitted to Congress, eleven years ago, are finished.
The institution has now ample accommodations for all its departments, and nothing
remains to ho done for its material comfort hut to provide for furnishing the new
building, for the proper inclosure and improvement of the grounds, and for the erection
of a gymnasium.
We are happy to he able to say that the cost of the improvements now completed
falls within the original estimates and within the amounts appropriated hy Congress,
and that after meeting all expenses that have been incurred in connection with our
recent building operations there will remain on hand a balance of nearly two thou¬
sand dollars, which, under the terms of the appropriation, can he applied toward fur¬
nishing tlio now building. A detailed statement of the disbursements made under the
direction of your committee will be laid before the board at a future meeting, to be
included in the annual report for the current year.
Your committee desire to express their satisfaction with the manner in which those
who have had to do with the planning and construction of the new building have
discharged tlio important tasks they have severally undertaken.
The architect, Mr. F. C. Withers, of New York Oily, has little need of praise at our
hands. The beauty and convenience of the buildings here erected after his designs
testify to his talent and skill as no words of a formal report could do. Wo may he
permitted to say, however, that l'or the unusual accuracy and fullness of his drawings,
and his readiness to give time for consultation and explanation either in New York or
Washington, without extra compensation, Mr. Withers deserves the acknowledgments
of the board.
Mr. J. G. Meyers, of Washington, our supervising architect, has been faithful and
eflieieut in the discharge of his duties, and ever watchful of the interests of the insti¬
Mr. J. G. Naylor, the principal contractor, has fulfilled his contract to the entire
satisfaction of your committee, having shown himself on all occasions anxious to
bring the work fully up to the requirements of the plans and specifications.
The subcontractors also deserve mention for the satisfactory manner iu which they
have performed their respective labors. They are as follows :
Messrs. M. A. McGowan & Co., stonecutters; Henry Conradis, brickmason; Smith,
Birge A Co., iron-workers, tinners, and plumbers; Charles Macnichol, painter;
George B. Clark, slater,—all of Washington; and Thomas & Sous, of Baltimore, who
furnished the butternut wood work.
Equally worthy of favorable notice, aro Mr. William W. Vaughn, of Washington,
who furnished the colored glass windows; Mr. W. II. Warner, of New York, who
erected the steam heating apparatus; and Messrs. Miller & Coates, of New York, who
laid the tiled floors in the corridors. These parties have done tlicir work well, and
at very moderate prices.
Tlie expense of completing the college edifice, together with connections with the
main central building, and the remodeling of the roof of the old section, lias amounted
to $125,060.64. This sum includes all fixtures of a permanent character, such as the
heating-apparatus, gas-lights, plumbing, &c.; also the expense of plans, specifications,
In its construction the building is semi-fireproof. The corridor floors are laid on
brick arches, the stairway is composed wholly of iron and stone, and there are numer¬
ous partition-walls of solid masonry. Should fire ever occur it is believed it could he
speedily checked, and that in any event a safe means of exit ps secured to the occu¬
pants of the building.
10 COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE HEAP AND DUMB.
Not a few who are present on this occasion witnessed, ou the very spot where we are
to-day assembled, tlie opening of this institution, in a small frame cottage, with live
pupils ami one instructor.
Eor the. steady and healthful growth that has continued since that day; for the lib¬
erality of benevolent wen in Washington, Philadelphia, Hartford, and Boston; for the
efficient and hearty co-operation of tlie many friends of the institution in Congress,
rising sometimes to hold championship against hitter opposition; for the unwavering
favor of tile, national legislature, and, above all, for the smile of Divine Providence,
which lias seemed ever to attend the work of this institution, your committee venture
to congratulate, the hoard and all who are interested in the welfare of deaf mutes;
and to express the hope that, so long as youth are found in our country needing such
rare and training as is here afforded, so long may this institution deserve and receive
the support of a beneficent government.
E. M. GATXAUDET.
Senator Dawes, in moving the acceptance of this report, congratulated the institu¬
tion upon its steady and healthful growth from insignificant beginnings, arid spoke
warmly of the work of President Oallaudet, to whose indomitable will, untiring energy,
and rare personal magnetism lie attributed the success of the college. While others
doubted the feasibility of his plans and aspirations, he never wavered, and to-day these
noble buildings, and the noble work of which they are auxiliaries, attest the wisdom
of his faith and the strength and benevolence of his purpose. He (Mr. Dawes) took
pleasure in recalling the failure of his own efforts to discourage the proposal to pur¬
chase Kendall Green, and now gladly acknowledged the importance of having the title
of this fine estate vested in the government, for thereby the perpetuity of the insti¬
tution is secured, while the nature of its incorporation protects it from the disturbing
effects of frequent political changes. He hoped the support it had received from Con¬
gress in its good work would he as steadily given in the future as in the past.
Dr. Sunderland, in seconding the motion of Mr. Dawes, referred to the favor of God
which had so abundantly blessed the institution, and paid a tribute to the founder and
first president of the institution, Hon. Amos Kendall, and indorsed .Mr. Dawes’s opinion
of the work and ability of President Gullamlet. lie then, on invitation, pronounced
the benediction, and the gathering dispersed.
EXERCISES OF PRESENTATION DAY.
The exercises of the regular public anniversary of our collegiate
department took place ou the 1st day of May, in the chapel of the insti¬
The number of visitors present far exceeded the capacity of the hall,
many being unable to secure even standing room. The various depart¬
ments of the government were represented as well its the diplomatic
The President of the United States, in his capacity as Patron of the
institution, occupied the chair.
The exercises were opened with prayer by Rev. Win. W. Patton, D. D.„
president of Howard University, as follows:
O, Lord, who hast revealed Thyself to ns through Thy manifold works, we thank
Thee that, Thou hast, also given us knowledge- of Thyself through Thy holy word ; that
we have learned of the way of salvation through Thy sou, Jesus Christ ; and that we
dwell in a Christian land, and amid Christian institutions. We praise Thee that wo
are permitted on this auspicious occasion to gather together to engage in these exer¬
cises connected with the important work of education. We thank Thee for the bless¬
ings which Thou hast bestowed upon our land in this respect, and that Thou hast
surrounded us on every side with occasions of thoughtful study, and that in this land
there is opportunity for us to pursue our investigations for truth through a life-long
period, we thank Thee that all classes are embraced within the provisions which
are now made for education, and especially would we give Thee thanks that, Thou
hast turned, in these later days of education, the minds of instructors to the classes of
persons represented hv this institution, so long shut out from the privileges accorded
to us. We desire, 0, Lord, with gratitude,, to recognize Thy good providence in so
rapidly developing the means which could bp put to use for their education, and that
Thou hast caused the national lmnntv to How out toward them in the establishment
of this college; and we pray for Thy blessing forest upon it in all its operations. We
pray that Thou wilt be with us on this occasion. May all that shall here he said and
done he to Thy glory, and the furtherance of the cause of humanity, through our Lord,
Jesus Christ, amen.
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 11
Tl\o following address was then delivered by the president of the col¬
ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT GALLAUDET.
The occasion which has brought us together at this hour is one of more than ordi¬
nary interest to the friends of this institution.
Besides being a day of festivity and rejoicing to all the members of the college, and
the day of (lays to the young men who are soon to go out from its protecting walls, it
is the crowning day of many years to those who have watched this institution from
its foundation, ami to those who have labored for its upbuilding.
In the times when science was young, the belief was widespread that certain occult
1 lowers resided in numbers ; that periods in the lives of men and of nations, represented
by arithmetical quantities, were momentous.
Although tlie science of the present no longer accepts these antiquated notions, a
certain interest, which it is not easy to explain, attaches to such coincidences as seem
to susta in the superstition of our forefathers, and I trust I shall not lie looked upon as
a believer in the doctrines of the Cabala when I call attention to the fact that, in the
institution whose anniversary we are assembled to celebrate, the sacred number seven
marks the epochs of importance.
The end of the first seven years found the primary department complete in its ap¬
pointments, and witnessed the inauguration of the college. At twice seven years the
success of the latter as an educational undertaking had been demonstrated by the
graduation of two classes from the full course of study, the liroail domain of Iveudall
Green had been secured, and the building in which we are now gathered was finished
The third epoch, which closes to-day, finds the buildings of the institution complete,
its organization perfected, and its resources, as assured liy the legislation of Congress,
sufficient for the work it has to do.
The institution enters upon a new existence from this time. The formative, experi¬
mental period is past. Henceforth its work is in the line of direct, ilntrammeled.
feasible educational effort. There exists no longer a question ns to the possibility of
directing deaf-mutes through a course of collegiate study, nor is there any uncertainty
as to the value of such training in fitting deaf-mutes for the higher walks of practical
Our earliest graduate is an instructor iu the primary department of this institution.
Of the class of 1800, one member is the principal of the Western Pennsylvania
Institution for Deaf-Mutes, a flourishing school of nearly eighty pupils ; another, well
known in Washington, fills the position of principal examiner in tlie Patent Office,
proving himself fully competent for tlie discharge of his delicate and important duties;
while another is a professor in the faculty of our own college.
One of the class of 1870 is the principal teacher in the young deaf-mute institution
of Oregon; others are instructors in Connecticut, Ohio, Tennessee, and Ontario, Canada.
Of the class of 1872, one is a professor in our college, one is the editor and publisher
of a newspaper in Massachusetts, one has charge of a school for deaf-mutes iu Cin¬
cinnati, and others are teaching in Nebraska and Mississippi.
From tlie later classes teachers have been furnished to the States of Minnesota,
Iowa, West Virginia, Maryland, Indiana, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania; one lias
become an accomplished draughtsman in the office of a New York architect, and one
has taken a place in a lawyer’s office in Columbus. And there is reason to believe that
these men, besides many others not yet called to positions of such prominence, are
exerting in the communities where they dwell the influence of upright lives, inspired
by the principles of reverence to God and love to their fellow-men.
At our second commencement, in 1870, a warm friend of the college, then Secretary
of the Interior, alluded to the missionary work that our graduates would find to do as.
teachers among those who were, like themselves, bereft of hearing. How fully and
how soon his prediction lias been fulfilled will appear from tlie fact, that at tlie present
time graduates of our college have under their immediate care and training upward
of four hundred children and youth iu the institutions of this country and Canada.
And thus, even before it lias reached its maturity, we are allowed the satisfaction
of knowing that the college for the deaf-mutes, denounced in prominent quarters but.
a few years since as an extravagant and useless experiment, has already done a work
for the advantage of the whole country, the value of which cannot he estimated in
Turning from the consideration of the benefits this college may he expected to con¬
fer on the community at large, through the work of its graduates, it will, perhaps, be
interesting to many here present to he informed as to the course of study afforded to
the students, the satisfactory completion of which is made the ground for the confer¬
ring of our academic honors.
Ill the department of mathematics, the freshmen complete algebra ; they also study
plane geometry, the geometry of space, and the conic sections. The sophomores study
12 COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB.
piano, inn! spherical trigonometry to mensuration and surveying, and learn to use loga¬
rithms avi11 1 facility and precision in computation. The juniors demonstrate tho
propositions of mechanics mathematically, and solve, numerous problems. They also
si inly astronomy, and, while their work is childly of a descriptive character, classes
liavo mastered the mathematical portion of Loomis’s Treatise by extending the study
into'tiie first term of the senior year.
In the department of natural sciences an elementary work is studied by tlio sopho¬
mores, accompanied by illustrative experiments. In the, junior year practical chem¬
istry is t aken it]), and laboratory work is performed by each member of the class. A
short course in qualitative analysis is pursued which illustrates the methods and en¬
ables the class to identify all the common minerals in compounds.
Natural philosophy is studied during the junior year, illustrations of the principal
phenomena being given by means of suitable apparatus.
Botany occupies two terms of the sophomore year, physiology, mineralogy, and
geology receiving attention at subsequent points of the course.
Beck’s binocular microscope and Morton’s college lantern are used for the purposes
of manipulation and illustration.
The course in history is as full as that of the prominent colleges, comprising tlio
study of American and English history, and a general survey of all the states of the
civilised world in ancient and modern times.
More stress is laid upon both the critical and practical study of the English lan¬
guage than in other colleges, owing to the general deficiency of the deaf and dumb
of tliia country in the use of that tongue; and philological studies, which are made
optional in most colleges, are here included in the regular course. Frequent exercises
in original composition are required of students in all the classes, and a full course in
English literature is given.
Latin is studied during the freshman year and about one-half the sophomore year,
and while, owing to the prominence given to French and German, and the critical
study of tlio English, the proportion of time devoted to the ancient languages is less
than in the usual curriculum of American colleges, it is believed that Latin is taught
in such a manner as to awaken in the students the true spirit of classical scholarship,
and enable them subsequently to read tlio more difficult authors independently with
pleasure and profit.
French and German are taught, by the “natural method” of Professors lioness and
Sauveur, the language to be imparted being the only one used in the class-room^ and
familiarity with the grammatical forms anil idioms being acquired by means of con¬
versation and reading before the principles of grammar are taken up. The relations
of French to Latin, and of both French and German to English, are explained. The
success attained under the “natural method” has been of the most gratifying char¬
Logic, rhetoric, and mental science receive as full attention as is usual in colleges;
and the same may be said of moral philosophy, evidences of Christianity, political
economy, international law, and icsthetics.
In all the departments of study ordinary college text-books are used ; recitations
are conducted almost wholly in verbal language, and the examinations, which occur
tlireo times a year, at tlio close of each term, are in writing.
On a scale of tun, a mark of 6.5 is necessary to pass an examination, and a standing
below 7 is subject to censure.
Lectures are frequently given by the professors on subjects within their respective
departments, and occasionally our students enjoy the benefit of addresses from gentle¬
men not connected with the college, such exercises being interpreted in the manner
made use of in your presence to-day.
Tlio young men who are to present essays this afternoon have reached the point in
the course of study just detailed which entitles them to the position of candidates for
Three of them, having lost their hearing in childhood, are able to speak woll enough
to lio understood in conversation; their voices are not, however, strong enough to
reach the most distant portions of this hall.
It will be understood, therefore, that the authors of the essays road will make use of
the language of signs in their delivery.
In opening the exercises of presentation day in the year of grace 1878, and of the
independence of the United States tlio 102d, may I bo permitted, on behalf of the fac¬
ulty of the college, to congratulate the board of directors, the representatives of the
government whose liberal appropriations have nobly supplemented and exceoded the
benefactions of individuals, anil all who have contributed of their time or their money
for the support of this college, on the auspicious events of this day ; and, if I may ho
allowed to speak for those whose ears the linger of God has touched, sealing thorn
until tlio resurrection morning, may I express tlio hope and belief that this institution
will not lack for support so long as there shall be found within tlio length and breadth
of our land those who need its fostering care.
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 13
LETTER FROM REV. AV. AV. TURNER, PII. D.
non. William Stickney, secretary of the board of directors, then
read the following letter from Bov. Dr. William W. Turner, for many
years principal of the deaf and dumb institution at Hartford:
Hartford, April 25, 1878.
My Dr a a Sir: Your Lind invitation to lie present with you on your approaching
presentation day has reached me, and lias awakened within me the recollection of
some of the most interesting events of my life. I cannot fail to mention, first of all,
my call from your honored father in 1821 to aid him, almost in its beginning, in the
new department of education he had so successfully introduced into this country, and
then my having advocated in the second convention of teachers in 1851 the necessity
of a high school or college for the deaf-mutes, and had hoped, as I intimated, that
your father might he placed at its head. But. the Good Master assigned him a higher
seat in llis kingdom of glory and qualified his youngest son for the responsible posi¬
This reminds me of the pleasant visits I made to AA r ashington to see the deaf-mute
college an accomplished fact—successfully carried forward under government patron¬
age by your judicious management until it has now reached its full majority —and can
never more lie regarded as an experiment.
I shall never forget your regard for me in assigning me a, position as a lecturer on
natural history and the pleasant interviews I have had with your students in that
capacity. Nothing hut the jniirmities of age, intensified by a life of hard work ill
the education of deaf-mutes, would have prevented more frequent and later efforts
in the same direction, and my most ready and cheerful consent to undertake all you
have desired me to do at your approaching “anniversary.” But while “the spirit is
willing tile llesli is weak.” I dare, not, therefore, venture to place luyself in my pres¬
ent feeble condition under the excitement of the occasion and the temptation to exer¬
tions beyond my strength.
I must, with sincere regret, decline your invitation, and deny myself the pleasure
which, under other circumstances, a visit to your hospitable mansion would have
given to both All's. Turner and myself.
AVitli our kind regards to Mrs. Gallaudet and our prayers for your future prosperity
and welfare, I am, most affectionate) v, voms,
AVM. AY. TURNER
E. M. Gallaudet, LL.D.
The candidates for degrees delivered essays, as follows:
Dissertation, William Wordmvorth, by Delos Albert Simpson, Michigan.
Dissertation, John Kittoo, by Frank Caleb Holloway, Iowa.
Oration, The Sidereal Heavens, by Frank Boss Gray. Illinois.
Oration, The English Parliament , by Samuel Mills Freeman, Ohio.
After tlie conclusion of the essays presented by the candidates for de¬
grees, the following addresses were delivered:
ADDRESS OE WILLIAM E. XI11LACK, OE INDIANA.
Aim President, Ladies and Gentlemen: I am not here to-day for the purpose of
addressing you at any great length. Circumstances are not favorable, if I should wish
to do so, as our time is quite limited.
It lias so happened that, during most of the years in which I have been engaged in pub¬
lic life, I ha ve been frequently called upon to aid in enterprises like this ; that is, in as¬
sisting to build up and maintaining the benevolent institutions of the country, first, in
my own State, and afterward in the Congress of tlie United States. I do not claim
great credit for anything I have done in that direction. I attribute what I have done
more to an inability to say no, when asked to perform what seemed to me to be a plain
duty, than anything else. I had not the courage to do otherwise than assist when I
have had the opportunity,
I have watched the progress of this institution, step by step, for many years. Twenty
years ago when I first became acquainted with it, there were but a few acres of ground
and a small and modest brick building, all of which were, the gift of one of our distin¬
guished citizens and philanthropists. It was not endowed. The organization which con¬
trolled it was strictly a private one, and the gentlemen who composed that organization
devoted themselves to tlieir duties simply as a matter of charity and benevolence.
Congress, however, extended some aid to the institution from the beginning in the
shape of small appropriations for the education of the deaf-mutes of the District. These
14 COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB.
appropriations were afterward increased from time to time as tlie growth and emergencies
of the institution seemed to require. After the close of the war, when the attention of
Congress could he better given to the ordinary affairs of civil life, a very grave question
arose as to what should he the exact future relations of this institution to the Govern¬
ment of the United States. Upon this subject there were some grave differences of
opinion. Inasmuch as the corporation was a private one, and the government had
no title to the property controlled by it, it was contended by many that the most that
could be done was simply to appropriate money each year to pay l'or the education
of the deaf-mutes of the District who might attend the inst itution, without assuming
any control or responsibility further of the institution itself. Under that construc¬
tion there never cmdd have been much growth or much development. Finally,
however, after much earnest discussion, and after careful consideration, in which
I had tin; honor in some way, from tiem to time, to participate, Congress came
handsomely to the rescue., and assumed the ownership of its property and a share
in the control of the affairs of the institution. This arrangement resulted in the
purchase by Congress of a large additional tract of land adjoining the original
tract or site. Provision was made for a certain number of directors to represent
Congress in the management of the institution. Provision was also made for
the erection of this magnificent college building, which has just been finished,
the completion of which is an occasion of special rejoicing to-day. So that we
find ourselves now no longer struggling to maintain a mere private school as of
twenty years ago, hut in the possession of an institution fully recognized among
the higher institutions of learning in the country. Wo have now large ami
commodious grounds with magnificent and appropriate buildings, with a fully organ¬
ized and most efficient faculty, capable and prepared to give the most thorough in¬
struction of any institution for the deaf and dumb in the whole world. This may he
considered a remarkable announcement, hut it is nevertheless true. In reality it is
the only institution which is prepared to give the deaf-mutes of this or any other
country a thorough collegiate education ; and to ho able to make that announcement
at the end of the brief period of twenty-one years reflects high credit upon all who
have been actively engaged in bringing about this very great result.
I therefore extend my congratulations, uot only to the faculty, hut to all connected
with the institution, upon tliu success they have achieved. Tins work, however, has
not been brought about without strenuous and persistent efforts upon the part of those
immediately in charge of the institution. Objections liavo been interposed every time
they asked for further appropriations, for the reason, among others that I have named,
it was objected that the institution was costing too much; not that there was extrava¬
gance, but that the deaf-mutes of the District here, for whom it was originally in¬
tended, ought to he educated at a smaller cost and by some less expensive methods.
Others objected entirely to the making of any appropriation by Congress, under the
impression that this was a private charity in the beginning and ought to continue to
he a private charity merely aud tie supported by those having an interest in deaf-
mute education. In my judgment these objections were never well taken. It is an
axiomatic truth, conceded to ho so at least, that popular education, universal edu¬
cation, is a necessity of our political condition; that popular government can only be
sustained by universal education. The deaf-mutes of the country are just as much a
portion of our population and as much citizens of tho United States as any other por¬
tion of the community. Therefore, I always felt that the obligation to educate deaf-
mutes was one resting as much upon us as any other obligation of similar import; aud
because it may happen to cost a little more money per capita to educate any of these
persons in the way that, is essential for their future usefulness is no reason why we
should not acknowledge that obligation.
As has been said by Dr. Gallaudet, tho distinguished president of this institution,
this institution now, with tho completion of the collego building, enters upon a new
career. It is now at the very front and leads the way in this grand enterprise. Here¬
after I hope we shall not have to call upon the government for so much aid as we
formerly had to do. What wo shall bo required to do hereafter will be more of a
routine and of a professional character, and those connected with the institution will
have the opportunity of devoting themselves more exclusively to the matters of educa¬
tion alone. I confidently anticipate, therefore, for those immediately in charge of the
institution an easier and a much moro comfortable time than in the doubtful aud un¬
certain days now past and gone.
I think wo may also safely count upon a career of continual and increasing useful¬
ness in tlio great work which lias been assigned to tin's institution.
My observation in life lias impressed me very strongly with one idea, anil that is that
tlie success of all great enterprises, whether they he public or private, is mainly due to
the energy of some one controlling mind. You may take tlie great newspaper establish¬
ments of the country, which are one of the strongest features of this American civiliza¬
tion of ours, and the success of nearly every one is attributable to the mind of some oue
person at some time connected with it. So it is in all great enterprises to which tho
publie attention is usually directed. I think I may with propriety on this occasion,
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 15
occupying the position -which I have, and the opportunities which I have had, speak
a word upon that subject. If this institution had not fallen into the hands of its
present distinguished president, or some such gentleman as he, I think it would never
have enjoyed the proud eminence which it now occupies. [Applause.] I have often
heard the remark made of seeing “the right man in the right place,” and 1 intend no
ordinary compliment when I say that I regard the distinguished president as emphat¬
ically in that capacity. [Applause.] Devoted to his work by a long previous training,
and by an earnestness which I have never seen excelled, he lias made this matter his
own from the very beginning until the present hour. Several times when lie wanted
additional appropriations to do what seemed to he necessary about the institution,
while I very much desired his success, I felt that he had undertaken more than could
he obtained for the present, and I have witnessed the cold manner in which these
suggestions have been received by those having the appropriations specially ill charge;
hut somehow, under the influence of that earnest zeal, that even temperament, and
the strong arguments which have always characterized his efforts, before the close of
the session lie would get practically just what he desired. [Applause.] I think hut
few appeals have been made by Dr. Gallandet which have not been grunted. I know
I was always unable to resist him myself, and 1 think that has been about the condi¬
tion of most others to whom his benevolent appeals have been made.
Upon this occasion I want to say another thing: that the success of this enterprise in
later years has been largely due to the magnificent geuerostty of the general govern¬
ment. It was impracticable for private charity to go for ward and make if the in¬
stitution it is to-day. As I have remarked, for many years it had a very doubtful
existence, and was unable to claim any well-defined relations with the general govern¬
ment, while yet, to some extent, sustained by it. The subsequent action of Congress,
to which I have referred, has relieved it of that anomaly, and has placed it upon a very
sure, footing as regards the means for its support. The success of the institution in
the future is thcrcloro, I feel, assured, and we ought now tube able without any very great
extra effort to sustain the work which has been already so well begun, making it a
continued success. In referring to Dr. Gallandet in such terms as 1 feel 1 ought to do
under the circumstances, and especially as I may not have an opportunity of address¬
ing so many of the immediate friends of the institution very soon again, 1 do not desire
to underrate the other persons associated with him in his good work, nor do I wish to
underrate the services of liismost excellent, faculty, and that of his assistants, nor would I
have you lose sight for a moment of that, magnificent man who founded this institution,
the lion, Amos Kendall, to whom I have heretofore referred, and who must never be
forgotten when we refer to the history of the institution. I feel, so far as I am person¬
ally concerned, and I trust you all have this same feeling with me, the most profound
satisfaction at the situation by which this institution is surrounded to-day, its twenty-
first anniversary. I also feel great satisfaction in reflecting on the great improvement
which has been made in the matter of deaf-mute education generally within the period
of the last fifty years. It is to the deaf-mute a new life, exerting now hopes and
aspirations. For myself I have never entered one of these institutions, either for the
education of the deaf-mute or the blind, or for the care of the insane, and witnessed
all the appointments made for the improvement of these unfortunate classes, without
having, tor the moment at least, a better opinion of our race and of the civilization
under which we live. Ladies and gentlemen, I will not detain you longer.
ADDRESS OF ItOX. JAMES A. GARFIELD, OF OHIO.
Mr. President, and Ladies and Gentlemen : Your exercises have been already
sufficient for nil your desires, I am sure, and I will only detain you to say how much
I am gratified to see the completion of this enterprise, which has been struggling up
for so many years, and lias reached a point at last where I think almost anybody will
rejoice at its further progress. I believe I said, on this stage nine years ago, that noth¬
ing impressed me more during the later days of the war, when I first came to this city,
than seeing the great marble columns being set up on the east, west, north, and south
fronts of yonder Capitol, while the sound of battle was echoing across the Potomac,
and shaking the very windows of the Executive Mansion. It was a touching exhibi¬
tion of unshakable faith in the final triumph and permanency of the Union. While
fighting with all their might to maintain its existence, the American people were
quietly setting up these noble columns as symbols of their faith that there would for¬
ever be a great capital of a great nation here, beside the beautiful Potomac; and step
by step, as the struggle went on and the restoration of the Union became certain,
tile determination seemed to he crystallized in the American mind that there should not.
be another rebellion like it; and as they had strengthened and adorned our marble
Capitol, so also they set up new pillars of justice and freedom, the living temple of our
liberties, to be its perpetual glory and support. By the same inspiration our work of
education, national in its spirit, earnest and determined in its character, has been pur-
16 COLUMBIA. INSTITUTION FOK THE DEAF AND DUMB.
gnod during the last fifteen years more than in any other period, because our people
sa w that the safety of tlie nation required it.
I am rejoiced to know that this institution cherishes the ideas I have been trying
to set forth. These afflicted young men were only recently regarded as an almost
helpless and useless portion of our common humanity. The effort of their country
to set them in a place where they should liavo an equal chance in the race of life,
is most worthy; and here first, I believe, on the earth, certainly first in America,
the deaf-mutes find an opportunity to enjoy college lights and privileges equal to those
enjoyed by others who are not so alliieted. And that is great. It is the great glory
of our republic that she lias done it; and at a time when it costs something to do it.
This institution is ono of the three that the United States supports. The one to
educate her sons for the Navy, the other for the Army, both of these for the safety of
the nation in time of war, and for her safeguard against war; and the third, thisinsti-
tution, in which the government reaches out its hand to make you the equal of till her
other citizens not alliieted as you are. What is the meaning of all this ? The lesson
it teaches is tlie increased value to Americans of training. That, in my judgment, is
the best lessou of our century. We are coming to understand that, whether you want
a man for war, or for peace—for whatever purpose you need him—attained man is
better than an untrained man. However great your untrained man may lie, he would
be greater and more ellicient if he had been trained. College training is not meant
to give you facts, but to teach you how to handle facts when you enter the many-sided
life of our country.
People waste a great deal of time thinking whether they had better study Latin or
Greek, or this or that science. I sum up all I have to say on tlie subject by calling
attention to the remark of a distinguished French scholar; when asked if it were
necessary to have a knowledge of the ancient, languages, he said, "O, no; it is not ■
necessary to know Latin, hut it is liecccssarv to have forgotten it.” That is, either be
a man who now knows it, or be ono who has forgotten it, but saved the training it
Thanking you, Mr. President, and ladies and gentlemen, for your kind attention to
this discursive talk, I bid you good day. [Applause.]
Messrs. Freeman, Gray, Holloway, and Simpson were then presented
h,y tlie president of the college to the board of directors as candidates
for the degree of bachelor of arts. The president announced that the
board hail conferred the honorary degree of master of arts on Otto Fried¬
rich Kruse, the most distinguished deaf-mute of Germany.
The Iiev. Thomas Gallandet, 1). D., rector of St. Ann’s church for
deaf-nmtes in New York City, then dismissed the audience with the
It is worthy of mention in this connection, as indicating the interest
felt in Europe in our college, that the Journal dc Bruxelles of August 13
last contains an appreciative article upon tlie college from the pen of
the eminent Mgr. de Ilaerne, speaking of the degree of master of arts
recently bestowed by the college upon O. F. Kruse, the German deaf-
mute, who has distinguished himself as a teacher and writer. Mgr. de
Huerne says it is “a powerful encouragement given to deaf-mutes in
general, inasmuch as this honor conferred upon one of their number
tends to raise them all in the social scale, by removing the barrier which
in the eyes of tlie world separated them in their instruction from the
rest of society.”
COMPLETION OF TIIE BUILDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION.
With the completion of the college-building already alluded to in this
report, the plans submitted to Congress in our ninth report are fully
As presenting better ideas of our buildings and grounds than any
verbal description could do, seven photographs are herewith transmitted,
which have been taken by a young deaf-mute photographer, Mr. Ronald
Douglas, who was for two years a student in our college.
No. 1 presents a view of about half of Kendall Green, taken from a
hill on the adjoining estate of Trinidad, recently donated to the Colnm-
COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 17
bian University by William W. Corcoran, esq. At the extreme right of
this view will be seen the location of the residence occupied by lion.
Amos Kendall at the time of the establishment of this institution. The
house, which fell very much into decay after Mr. Kendall’s removal from
it, has lately been taken down and rebuilt as a farm cottage, and is now
occupied by the steward and farmer of the institution.
No. 2 gives a view of the main buildings of the institution, taken from
the roof of the president’s house.
No. d shows the dwelling-houses occupied by the president and pro¬
No. 4 is a view of the terrace and a portion of the chapel front, taken
from a window in the building of the primary department.
No. 5 gives a view of the museum.
No. 0 is a copy of a picture taken some years since of the building in
which the institution commenced its operations twenty-one years ago.
The same building was used seven years later as the first home of the
No. 7 gives a view of a building erected in 1859, at the expense of lion.
Amos Kendall, and by him presented to the institution, together with
two acres of land. This structure forms a part of the building of the
primary department, and its west wall can be seen in view No. 2.
The appropriation of $5,000 made by Congress at its last session for
the improvement and inclosure of our grounds has enabled us to com¬
plete the terrace-wall connecting our main buildings; to erect six lamps
in the grounds near the buildings; to pave the approaches from the gate¬
way to the several buildings with a substantial concrete pavement six
inches in thickness, which serves as carriage-way and foot-path at the
same time; to build a substantial gate-keeper’s lodge, containing four
rooms; to inclose in terra-cotta piping of suitable diameter a drain 500
feet long, leading away from our buildings, that has remained uncovered
for several years; to build fifty-five rods of new fencing on our western
boundary-line; to repair more than a hundred rods of fencing; to grade
and gravel a thousand square yards of roadway; to lay turf around the
college-building and the approaches thereto; leaving about $500 still
unexpended, with which it is designed to purchase trees and shrubbery
for planting next spring.
The receipts and expenditures for the year now under review will ap¬
pear from the following detailed statements:
RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES.
I.—succour oil’ THE INSTITUTION.
Balance from olil account. ,$G12 18
Received from Treasury of the United States. 48,000 00
Received for hoard imii tuition. 1,441 88
Received from manual-labor fund. 291 00
Received from .students for hooks and stationery... 1549 29
Received for work done in shop .. 27G 97
Received from sale of live stock. 140 50
Received for damage to grounds by cattle..... 8 50
Received from sale of gas... 99 91
Received from pupils for repairs to shoes. 5 00
Received from sale of old carpet. 2 38
Received from sale of milk. 109 80
Received from sale of wheat. 138 15
Received from sale of old wood. 91 00
Received from sale of apples. 7 50
Received for transportation refunded... 4 00
2 c i
18 COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOB THE DEAF AND DUMB.
Expended for salaries ami wages... $28,253 63
Expended lor r<x'cri<:.s... 2,623 44
Expended for incuts. 4, 423 04
Expended l'ov potatoes. 500 50
Expended fur incidental mnl household expenses, marketing, &e. 2,872 83
Expended for butter and eggs.. 2,045 37
Expended for fuel. 1,104 23
Expended for bread. 1,353 77
Expended for gun. 1,147 38
Expended for repairs on buildings, &c... 1,038 43
Expended for furniture. 230 85
Expended for live-stoelc... 225 00
Expended for expenses of directors’ meetings and public anniversaries_ 213 50
Expended for books and stationery... 767 13
Expended for dry goods and shoes.... ... 243 23
Expended for medical attendance.. 214 00
Expended for feed, fertilizers, farm-tools, &o_....... 300 38
Expended for lumber.-... 283 71
Expended for printing and engraving.. 74 00
Expelnled for ice. . 125 74
Expended for drugs and chemicals.. ... 154 21
Expended for new carriage, and carriage and wagon repairs. 388 68
Expended for excursion and entertainments for pupils. 86 06
Expended for illustrative apparatus. 258 00
Expended for blucksmithing .. 84 00
Expended for harness and repairs. 45 34
Expended for hardware. 338 06
Expended for erection and rent of telephones. 117 50
Expended for clothing for pupils. 8 50
Balance unexpended. 1,301 03
II.—KXTKXSinX AN1) ITITINU Ul' 01' DU1L1UXUS.
By balance. $12 24
Keecivcd from Treasury of the United States. 72,024 62
Expended for wages and labor..... $1,333 86
Expended for architect’s services....... 2, 201 36
Expended on contracts with J. G. Naylor.......... 55,332 74
Expended for heating...... . 3,400 00
Expended for glass windows... 712 00
Expended for stone-work. 537 25
Expended for paving and grading... 387 23
Expended for iron-work.. 268 20
Expended for gas-lixtures. 402 06
Expended for tiles for corridor Hours. 2,334 28
Expended for weather-vane, anemometer, and recording instrument..-.. 181 00
Expended for lumber... 347 33
Expended for brick-work. 637 23
Expended for material. 747 08
Expended for furnishing. 1,255 37
Expended for plumbing and tin work. 500 13
Expended for lightning-rods. 162 00
Expended for slating. 120 55
Expended for plastering. 343 75
Balance. 40 36
72, 036 80
COLUMBIA. INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 19
ESTIMATES FOR NEXT YEAR.
Tlie following estimates for the service of the fiscal year ending June
30, 1880, have already been submitted:
For the support of the institution, including salaries and incidental
expenses, and five hundred dollars for books and illustrative apparatus,
fifty-one thousand dollars.
For the erection of a gymnasium with bath-house attached, and the
improvement of the grounds of the institution and the inclosure of the
same, fifteen thousand five hundred dollars.
The first estimate is for the same amount as was appropriated by
Congress at its last session for the current expenses of the present year.
The improvements contemplated in the second estimate are very im¬
portant to the welfare of our pupils and the safety and proper care of
We have long .felt the need of a gymnasium, to enable us to give
proper attention to the physical development of our pupils, but the
urgent demands of the institution in other directions have led us to
postpone this improvement until the main buildings were completed.
The fact that no less than four of our older pupils have met death by
drowning, and our knowledge of the fact that many of them have never
been taught to swim, have made it seem desirable that in connection with
our gymnasium there should be a bathing-pool of sufficient size to en¬
able us to teach all our pupils how to manage themselves in the water.
The second estimate is designed also to provide for the further im¬
provement of our grounds, in accordance with the plans of Mr. Fred.
Law Olmstead, adopted twelve years ago, and to commence the erection
along our front line on Boundary street of a substantial stone and iron
fence, the need for which begins to be very pressing.
All of which is respectfully submitted by order of the board of direct¬
EDWARD M. GALLAUDET,
lion. C. ScilURZ,
Secretary of the Interior.
CATALOGUE OE STUDENTS AND PUPILS.
IN THK COr.r.KGK.
Fron t Conneclieut. — Robert Newton Pai'Nons.
From Delaware. —Theodore Kiesel.
From Georgia. —Lewis Arthur Palmer.
From Illinois. —Charles Chester Codman, Lester Goodman, Frank Hess Gray, Alva
Jeffords, James Moline Tipton.
From Indiana. —James Irvin Sansom, Jesse Cross.
From Iowa. —Frank Calel> Holloway, William Austin Nelson.
From Maryland. —Charles Stewart.
From Massachusetts. —John Prune is Donnelly, Frederick Fremont Smith, John Albert
Prince, Albert Samuel Tufts, Henry White.
From Michigan. —George Melnotto Grummond, Delos Albert Simpson, Edward Louis
From Minnesota. —James Martin Cosgrove, Jeremiah P. Kelly, James Lewis Smith.
From Missouri.—George Thomas Dougherty.
From A 'em York. —William Albert Jackson, John Gordon Saxton.
From New Hampshire. —William E. White.
From North Carolina. —Albert Johnson Andrews.
From Ohio. —Hugh Hubert Drake, Samuel Mills Freeman, Robert King, Joseph Win-
ton Leib, Richard L. II. Long, Charles Merrick Rice, Collins Stone Sawhill, Isaac
Hatcher Sawhill, Albert Henry Schory, Frank Wiley Shaw, Samuel Cox Stobclton,
Robert Newton Stevenson, Allied Flinn Wood, John Joachim Viets.
From I’ennsglrania. — Eddie Romanzo Carroll, Jerome Thaddeus Elwell, Ahram
Frantz, Jacob' Mitchell Koehler, Herbert Monroe Malliek, Robert Middleton Zeigler.
From Uoulh Carolina. —Thomas Hines Coleman, Julius C. Dargan, David Calhoun
From Tennessee. —Isaac Newton Hammer.
From Vermont. —James Dresser Allen, Frank Wilson Bigelow.
From IVrst Virginia. —George Layton.
From Wisconsin. —Lars M. Larson, James Joseph Murphy, Harry Reed.
From District of Columbia. —Arthur Dunham Bryant, Charles Clifford Griffin.
Louisa Yocum Fisher.
Annie II. Elliott.
Jennie J. Gilleni.
Sophia R. Weller.
Clara V. White.
Wilbur F. Bateman.
Edward T. Burns.
Elmer E. Butterbaugli.
Enoch G. Carroll.
Fred C. Cook.
John Francis Craig.
District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
■ District of Columbia.
■ District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
■ District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
.District of Columbia.
22 COLUMBIA. INSTITUTION FOB T1IB DEAF AND DUMB.
Robert W. Dailey.
William F. Deeblo..
Edward O. Herr.
Charles E. D. Krigbamn
Frank A. Lcitner_
Columbus A. Rhea.
Henry L. Rhea.
William J. Rich.
John A. Starks.
Elying H. Starks.
William A. Tilley.
John W. L. Unswortli..
• District of Columbia,
District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
District of Columbia.
.District of Columbia.
• District of Columbia.
-District of Columbia.
■ District of Columbia.
■ District of Columbia.
-District of Columbia.
■ District of Columbia.
.District of Columbia.
• District of Columbia.
I. The academic year is divided into three terms, the first beginning on the Thurs¬
day before the last Thursday in .September, and closing on the 24th of December;
the second beginning tlio 2d of January, and closing the last Thursday before Easter;
the third beginning the first Tuesday after Easter, and closing the Wednesday before
tho.lust Wednesday in June.
II. The vacations arc from the 24th of December to the 2d of January, and from the
close of tlio term in June to the opening of the term in September.
III. There arc holidays at Thanksgiving and Easter.
IV. The pupils may visit their homes during the regular vacations and at the above-
named holidays, but at no other time, unless for some special, urgent reason, and tlion
only by permission of tlio president.
V. The bills for the maintenance and tuition of pupils supported by tlieir friends
must bo paid semi-annually, in advance.
VI. The charge for pay-pupils is $150 each per annum. This sum covers all ex¬
penses in tlio primary department except clothing, and all in the college except
clothing and hooks.
VII. The Government of the United States defrays the expenses of those who reside
in the District of Columbia, or whoso parents are in the Army or Navy, provided they
are unable to pay for their education. To students from the States' and Territories
who have not the means of defraying all the expenses of the college course, the board
of directors renders such assistance as circumstances seem to require, as far as tho
means at its disposal for this object will allow.
VIII. It is expected that the friends of the pupils will provide them with clothing,
and it is important that upon entering or returning to the institution they should ho
supplied with ,a sufficient amount for an entire year. All clothing should he plainly
marked with the owner’s name.
IX. All letters concerning pupils or application for admission should he addiessed
to the president.